Harakat / Vowels
Noorani Qaida lesson 4: noorani qaida takhti number 4: Before starting this lesson, you should have basic knowledge about vowels.
This lesson covers the Arabic vowels. As just like in the English language there are vowels (a, e, i, o, u) to make different sounds. In the Arabic language, it also has some vowels, but they are only three.
Remembered that we have touched these letters in the first lesson Noorani Qaida lesson 1. In Arabic language, this lesson is named as حركه” ” for one vowel and حرکات”” for vowels.
In Tajweed, Ulamaa defines the word حركه with the “a finger movement”. For example, opening OR closing of a finger at a normal pace. It is a measurement of sound or duration of a sound.
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We have three حرکات (vowels) in Arabic language:
1. Fathah فتحة
Consider فتحة a line that goes on the top of any letter.
Example: بَ. Here you see the letter ب having a small line on it. This is called فتحة.
2. Kasrah كسرة
Consider it line that goes below or under any letter.
Example: بِ. here you see the letter ب having a small line below it. This is called كسرة.
3. dhammah ضمّة
Consider it like a small و written above any letter.
Example: بُ. here you see that a small و appears on the top of the letter ب. this is called ضمّة.
Repeat above three vowels (Fathah, Kasrah and dhammah) until you master these words because these three words will be used throughout the series of lessons.
- Fathah فتحة makes a sound of AA (read it by opening your mouth).
- Kasrah كسرة makes a sound of EE.
- Dhammah ضمّة makes a sound of UU.
Note: These three sounds should be for a short duration of time as earlier it is said that Harakah is a movement.
Now we will put them in practice by starting our Noorani Qaida lesson 3. In this lesson, you will see that each letter is repeated three times with respect to the vowels we just have studied. If you have practiced the first lesson (where we studied the home of every letter) perfectly then this lesson will be very easy for you.
ءَ: it is read out as “hamza fathah A”.
Precaution: read it without pausing and don’t stretch the ending letters like ا ، و ، ی OR A,E,O appearing at the end of the word. Read out each group of letters combine also. Remember this precaution throughout the lesson.
ءِ: it is read out as “Hamzah kasrah E”.
ءُ: read out it as “Hamzah dhammah U.
ہَ: read it as “ھا فتحہ ها” (Haaa fathah Ha).
ہِ: read it as “ھا کسرہ هي ” (Haa kasrah he).
Remember: don’t stretch the letter ی here.
ہُ: read it as “ھا ضمّه ھو” (Haa dhammah Hu).
Remember: don’t stretch the و here. Fathah, kasrah, and dhammah are nothing but move the letters in different directions.
عَ: read it out as “ عین فتحہ عا” (ayeen fathah A).
Precaution: use the ع sound carefully otherwise it may become ء. so be careful while reading this letter.
عِ: read it as “ عین کسرہ عی” (ayeen kasrah E).
عُ: read it as “عین ضمّه عو” (ayeen dhammah U).
حَ: read it as “ حا فتحہ حا” (Haa fathah Ha).
Remember here the sound of ح not ھ.
حِ: read it as “ حا کسرہ حی ” (Haa kasrah He).
حُ: read it as “ حا ضمّه حو” (Haa dhammah hu).
غَ: read it as “ غین فتحہ غا” (ghayeen fathah gha).
Remember: this is a heavy letter so make a heavy a sound at the end of the letter.
غِ: read it as “ غین کسرہ غی” (ghayeen kasrah ghe).
غُ: read it as “ غین ضمّه غو” (ghayeen dhammah ghu).
خَ: read it as “خا فتحہ خا” (Khaa fathah kha).
خِ: read it as “ خا کسرہ خی” (khaa kasrah khe).
خُ: read it as “ خا ضمّه خو” (khaa dhammah khu).
قَ: read it as “ قاف فتحہ قا” (qaaf fathah qa).
قِ: read it as “ قاف کسرہ قی” (qaaf kasrah qe).
قُ: read it as “ قاف ضمّه قو” (qaaf dhammah qu).
کَ: read it as “کاف فتحہ کا” (Kaaf fathah ka).
کِ: read it as “ کاف کسرہ کی” (kaaf kasrah ke).
کُ: read it as “ کاف ضمّه کو”(kaaf dhammah ku).
جَ: read it as “ جیم فتحہ جا” (jeem fathah Ja).
جِ: read it as “ جیم فتحہ جی”(jeem kasrah je).
جُ: read it as “ جیم ضمّه جو” (jeem dhammah ju).
شَ: read it as “ شین فتحہ شا”(sheen fathah sha).
شِ: read it as “ شین کسرہ شی ” (sheen kasrah she).
شُ: read it as “ شین ضمّه شو”(sheen dhammah shu).
یَ: read it as “ یا فتحہ یا” (yaa fathah ya).
یِ: read it as “ یا کسرہ یی”(yaa kasrah ye).
یُ: read it as “ یا ضمّه یو”(yaa dhammah yu).
ضَ: read it as “ ضاد فتحہ ضا”(daad fathah da).
ضِ: read it as “ ضاد کسرہ ضی”(daad kasrah de).
ضُ: read it as “ ضاد ضمّه ضو” (daad dhammah du).
لَ: read it as “ لام فتحہ لا” (laam fathah la).
لِ: read it as “ لام کسرہ لی”(laam kasrah le).
لُ: read it as “ لام ضمّه لو”(laam dhammah lu).
نَ: read it as “ نون فتحہ نا”(noon fathah na).
نِ: read it as “ نون کسرہ نی”(noon kasrah ne).
نُ: read it as “ نون ضمّه نو”(noon dhammah nu).
رَ: read it as “ را فتحہ ر” (raa fathah ra).
رِ: read it as “را کسرہ ری”(raa kasrah re).
رُ: read it as “ را ضمّه رو”(raa dhammah ru).
طَ: read it as “ طا فتحہ طا”( taa fathah ta).
طِ: read it as “ طا کسرہ طي”(taa kasrah te).
طُ: read it as “ طا ضمّه طو”(taa dhammah tu).
دَ: read it as “ دال فتحہ دا”(daal fathah da).
دِ: read it as “ دال کسرہ دی”(daal kasrah de).
دُ: read it as “ دال ضمّه دو”(daal dhammah du).
تَ: read it as “ تا فتحہ ت”(taa fathah ta).
تِ: read it as “ تاکسرہ تی”(taa kasrah te).
تُ: read it as “تا ضمّه تو”(taa dhammah tu).
صَ: read it as “صاد فتحہ صا”(saad fathah sa).
صِ: read it as “ صاد کسرہ صی”(saad kasrah se).
صُ: read it as “ صاد ضمّه صو”(saad dhammah su).
سَ: read it as “سین فتحہ سا” (seen fathah sa).
سِ: read it as “ سین کسرہ سی”(seen kasrah se).
سُ: read it as “ سین ضمّه سو”(seen dhammah su).
زَ: read it as “ زا فتحہ زا” (zaa fathah za).
زِ: read it as “ زا کسرہ زی”(zaa kasrah ze).
زُ: read it as “ زا ضمّه زو”(zaa dhammah zu)
ظَ: read it as “ ظا فتحہ ظا ”(zaa fathah tha).
ظِ: read it as “ ظا کسرہ ظی” (zaa kasrah the).
ظُ: read it as “ظا ضمّه ظو”(zaa dhammah thu).
Precaution: remember the difference between ز and ظ.
ذَ: read it as “ ذال فتحہ ذا”(zaal fathah tha).
ذِ: read it as “ ذال کسرہ ذی”(zaal kasrah the).
ذُ: read it as “ زال ضمّه ذو”(zaal dhammah thu).
ثَ: read it as “ ثا فتحہ ث” (saa fathah tha).
ثِ: read it as “ ثا کسرہ ثی”(saa kasrah the).
ثُ: read it as “ ثا ضمّه ثو”(saa dhammah thu).
فَ: read it as “فا فتحہ فا”(faa fathah fa).
فِ: read it as “ فا کسرہ فی”(faa kasrah fe).
فُ: read it as “فا ضمّه فو”(faa dhammah fa).
وَ: read it as “ وا فتحہ وا”(waa fathah wa).
وِ: read it as “ وا کسرہ وی”(waa kasrah we).
وُ: read it as “ وا ضمّه وو”(waa dhammah wu).
بَ: read it as “ با فتحہ با”(baa fathah ba).
بِ: read it as “با کسرہ بی”(baa kasrah be).
بُ: read it as “ با ضمّه بو”(baa dhammah bu).
مَ: read it as “ میم فتحہ ما”(meem fathah ma).
مِ: read it as “میم کسرہ می”(meem kasrah me).
مُ: read it as “میم ضمّه مو”(meem kasrah mu).
مُ: read it as “میم ضمّه مو”(meem kasrah mu).
The following heavy letters
ص ، ض ، ط ، ظ
See when these letters have even kasrah they will always pronounce heavy.
صِ – when doesn’t pronounce heavy, it will become سِ.
ضِ – when doesn’t pronounce heavy, it will become دِ.
طِ – when doesn’t pronounce heavy, it will become تِ.
ظِ – when doesn’t pronounce heavy, it will become ذِ.
So, you should be very careful especially for these heavy letters.
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