#02 Salah – Five Pillars of Islam
2.Establishing regular prayers (Salah)
Al Salah: The status of prayers is higher than all other acts of worship and its evidence is the clearest of all. Islam has given it a very important status. Thus, among other acts of worship, its virtue and status have been explained in such a way that prayer is an intermediary between the servant and the Lord, through which the obedience of the servant is manifested.
Definition of Salah:
In Arabic, “al-salat” means supplication.
As Allah SWT says in the noble Quran:
وَصَلِّ عَلَيۡهِمۡؕ اِنَّ صَلٰوتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمۡ
“And invoke [ Allah ‘s blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them” (At-Tawbah: 103)
A Worship that involves a few words and actions. It starts with Takbeer and ends with salaam.
Here words mean Takbeer, qirat and tasbih etc. and actions means qiyaam, Ruku and sajdah etc.
Prayer is one of the acts of worship that was obligatory in the heavenly religions before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
So Hazrat Ibrahim (peace be upon Him) prayed to Allah to make him and his descendants the establishers of prayers.
رَبِّ اجۡعَلۡنِىۡ مُقِيۡمَ الصَّلٰوةِ وَمِنۡ ذُرِّيَّتِىۡ ۖ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلۡ دُعَآءِ ۞
“My Lord make me an establisher of prayer, and [many] from my descendants”. (Ibrahim: 40)
Hazrat Ishmael (Peace be upon Him) used to order his family to pray:
وَ كَانَ يَاۡمُرُ اَهۡلَهٗ بِالصَّلٰوةِ وَالزَّكٰوةِۖ وَكَانَ عِنۡدَ رَبِّهٖ مَرۡضِيًّا ۞
“And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakah” (Maryam: 55)
Allah says to Prophet Musa (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him):
اِنَّنِىۡۤ اَنَا اللّٰهُ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّاۤ اَنَا فَاعۡبُدۡنِىۡ ۙ وَاَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ لِذِكۡرِىۡ ۞
“Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance”. (taha: 14)
Allah almighty has also emphasized this to Prophet Jesus (peace be upon Him) and said:
وَّجَعَلَنِىۡ مُبٰـرَكًا اَيۡنَ مَا كُنۡتُۖ وَاَوۡصٰنِىۡ بِالصَّلٰوةِ وَالزَّكٰوةِ مَا دُمۡتُ حَيًّا ۞
“And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive” (Maryam: 31)
it was made obligatory on the Holy Prophet (peace be upon Him) to offer prayers on the night of Ascension in the heavens. In the beginning, fifty prayers were made obligatory. Then only five were left. So we have to pray only five prayers but we will get the reward of fifty.
And the five prayers are:
Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha.
Evidence of obligation of salah:
There are so many proofs of obligation of salah. Few which are below:
Proofs from the Noble Quran:
Allah says in the Noble Quran:
وَاَقِيۡمُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَاٰتُوا الزَّكٰوةَ
“And establish prayer and give zakah” (al- baqrarah: 43)
And allah says:
اِنَّ الصَّلٰوةَ كَانَتۡ عَلَى الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ كِتٰبًا مَّوۡقُوۡتًا
“Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times”. (an- Nisa: 1And Allah says:
وَمَاۤ اُمِرُوۡۤا اِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُوا اللّٰهَ مُخۡلِصِيۡنَ لَـهُ الدِّيۡنَ ۙ حُنَفَآءَ وَيُقِيۡمُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَيُؤۡتُوا الزَّكٰوةَ وَذٰلِكَ دِيۡنُ الۡقَيِّمَةِ ۞
“And they were not commanded except to worship Allah, [being] sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth, and to establish prayer and to give zakah. And that is the correct religion”. (Al- Bayyinah: 5)
Virtues of obligation:
There are many wisdoms and benefits behind the obligation of prayer, some of which are mentioned here:
- To make a man realize that Allah Almighty is his God. Thus, through prayer, he or she feels devotion and is always connected to his/ her Creator.
- It connects the worshiper permanently with Allah Almighty and it always reminds him of Allah Almighty. Prayer prevents him from evil and immorality, so the salah is a great reason to avoid sins and evils. Proof of this is blew:
Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
The similitude of five prayers is like an overflowing river passing by the gate of one of you in which he washes five times daily Hasan said: No filthiness can remain on him. (Sahih Muslim: 668)
- Prayers are peace of heart, and peace of mind and relief from the suffering.
- It is a source of relief for those who suffer from anxiety. That is why the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) used to pray in every grief.
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) says:
Get up, Bilal, and give us comfort by the prayer. (Sunan Abi Dawud: 4986)
Who is obliged to offer prayers?
Prayers are obligatory on every mature and wise Muslim man and woman.
However, it is not obligatory on non-Muslim i.e. he will not be asked to offer prayers in this world because there is no prayer for the disbeliever, but in the Hereafter he will be questioned because he could have accepted Islam and offered prayers but he did not.
The proof for this from the Noble Quran:
قَالُوۡا لَمۡ نَكُ مِنَ الۡمُصَلِّيۡنَۙ ۞ مَا سَلَـكَكُمۡ فِىۡ سَقَرَ ۞
“[And asking them], “What put you into Hell? They will say, “We were not of those who prayed” (al-Muddathir: 42-43
Similarly, a small child is not obligated to pray. The same rule applies to a lunatic and a woman during menstruation because the Shari’ah has exempted them from the compulsion of impurity.
it is obligatory for a guardian of a child to order his or her child to pray when he or she is seven years old and they should strictly ordered to pray when the children are ten years old so that they may Get the habit of prayer.
Conditions of prayer:
- To be Muslim
- To be wise
- Reaching puberty
- Having a prayer time
- To intend Facing the Qiblah• To hide private part (Satar)
For a man, the part from belly button to knee is called satar and for a woman the whole body is a satar except for the face and palms and this exception is only for salah.
- Removing impurity from the clothes, body and place of prayer of the worshiper
Timing of Prayers:
The timing of prayer is stated in the following Hadith:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’, the mawla of Abdullah ibn Umar, that Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to his governors saying, “The most important of your affairs in my view is the prayer. Whoever protects it and observes it carefully is protecting his deen, while whoever is negligent about it will be even more negligent about other things.
” Then he added, “Pray dhuhr any time from when the afternoon shade is the length of your forearm until the length of your shadow matches your height. Pray asr when the sun is still pure white, so that a rider can travel two or three farsakhs before the sun sets. Pray maghrib when the sun has set.
Pray isha any time from when the redness in the western sky has disappeared until a third of the night has passed – and a person who sleeps, may he have no rest, a person who sleeps, may he have no rest. And pray subh when all the stars are visible and like a haze in the sky.” (muwatta malik: 6)
Rakaats of prayers:
The number of all obligatory prayers is seventeen rakaats which are as follows.
Zuhr: Four rakaats
Asr: Four rakaats
Maghrib: Three rakaats
Isha: Four rakaats
Fajr: Two rakaats
Whoever increases or decreases the number of rakaats in these rakaats, his prayers are void and if he makes a mistake, he will make up for it by prostrating.
Prayer with congregation
Every Muslim must go to the Masjid and arrange congregation to perform the obligatory prayers there. Because the congregation of the mosque is required in the shariah. As it is Narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A):
“The reward of the congregational prayer is twenty-seven times greater (than that of the prayer offered by a person alone).
” (Sahih al-Bukhari 649)
The Holy Prophet strictly condemned to pray obligatory prayer alone in the house without any excuse.
If praying at home is based on an excuse, such as (severe illness, hand-cut or stroke, or unable to walk due to old age, etc.), then it is permissible to pray at home.
It is said that during the time of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon Him), either the open hypocritical party (Munafiqeen) was abandoned the congregational prayer or a patient who could not walk even with the support of two men could pray without congregation otherwise the patient who could walk with the support of two men also joined the mosque for offering prayer
Therefore, it is a sin for a man to make a routine to pray the obligatory prayer in the house without any valid excuse. He should pray in the Masjid with the congregation, but if one cannot pray with the congregation due to an excuse, it is not harm in praying at home.
Some people prefer to perform all their prayers at home, going to the mosque only once a week, for Friday prayers. Others do the opposite and attend prayers at mosques for all five daily prayers, leaving nothing to perform at home. No doubt offering the obligatory prayers with the congregation in the mosque is much better and brings the worshiper much higher reward.
Offering prayers in a congregation is strongly encouraged because it strengthens ties within the local community and brings people together. worshippers exchange friendly conversation after prayers in a relaxed atmosphere. They inquire after those who miss a couple of prayers. Hence, Islam gives greater rewards to congregational prayers.
Evidence of congregational prayers from Hadith:
It is Narrated by Hazrat Abu Huraira (R.A) Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “By Him in Whose Hand my soul is I was about to order for collecting firewood (fuel) and then order Someone to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer and then order someone to lead the prayer then I would go from behind and burn the houses of men who did not present themselves for the (compulsory congregational) prayer.
By Him, in Whose Hands my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat present in between two ribs, he would have turned up for the `Isha’ prayer.
(Sahih al-Bukhari: 644)
The Holy Prophet was very kind to all humanity even they were Muslims or Non-Muslims, but the Holy Prophet strictly prohibited to pray the obligatory at home without any excuse. If one, who sincerely believes in Allah and the Last Day, only contemplates on the above words of the Messenger of Allah (saws), about whom Allah Almighty states in the Quran We sent you not(O Mohamed (saws)), except as a Mercy to all the worlds (21:107); one would realize how much importance the Prophet (saws) gave to the congregational prayers being performed in the Mosques.
It was narrated from Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (R.A) that The Holy Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever hears the call
(Adhan) and does not come (to Masjid), his prayer is not valid, except for those who have an excuse.
(Sunan Ibn Majah: 793)
Hazrat Abu Huraira (R.A) reported Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon Him) as saying:
“The most burdensome prayers for the hypocrites are the night prayer and the morning prayer. If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even though crawling, and I thought that I should order the prayer to be commenced and command a person to lead people in prayer, and I should then go along with some persons having a fagot of fuel with them to the people who have not attended the prayer (in congregation) and would burn their houses with fire”
(Sahih Muslim: 651 b)
This hadeeth indicates that prayer in congregation is an individual obligation, not a communal one, because if it was a communal obligation and some had done it, why would others have deserved the punishment? There is no punishment except for one who neglects an obligatory prayer or does something that is haram in Islam
It was narrated by Hazrat ibn Umm Maktum (R.A) “I said to the Prophet: ‘I am an old man and blind; my house is far away, and I have no one to lead me. Is there any concession (for me not to have to attend the prayer in the mosque)?’ He said: ‘Can you hear the call?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Then I do not find any concession for you.
(Sunan Ibn Majah: 792)
If there is no concession for a blind man who had no one to lead him, it is more appropriate that there should be no concession for others
From these hadiths, it is understood that,
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon Him) ordered us to perform the obligatory prayers in the Masjid.
- The companions of the Holy Prophet (SAW) followed such an order that even the blind man would attend the congregational prayers in the mosque.
- During the illness and weakness, coming to Masjid of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon Him) stated that the masjid and the congregational prayer is of great importance.
- If anyone who was ill could not walk, then he would come to the mosque with the support of two people to perform the prayer in the Masjid.
- without any excuse, leaving the congregational prayers the companions of the Holy Prophet (SAW) considered it as hypocrites.
These Hadiths argue that Muslims must pray in the mosque. But it is regrettable that in our society that after the call to prayer, the people are engaged in their activities, and many consider it sufficient to pray in their place. without such an excuse of sharia, there is no prayer, as the hadeeth of the Holy Prophet has revealed this.
Is it Mandatory for Women to pray in the Masjid?
There are many different issues of man and woman in a religion, which is because of Allah has made a significant difference in the creation of both. The woman has to be fully covered and she has been ordered to take over the houses.
As Allah says in the Holy Quran:
“And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance”.
One of the main problems regarding the prayer of the woman is that usually, a woman prays alone in her home while the men perform their prayers with the congregation in the mosque. And it is Twenty-seven times better to pray with the congregation than praying alone as we have seen in the hadith above.
In the light of this hadith, a woman seems to lose the innate virtues of praying in a mosque but is a fact that woman is not deprived of virtues anywhere in Islam. In Islam like men has endowed, women with immense excellence and provided all kinds of opportunities and privileges of reward. Those opportunities can vary greatly from condition to condition or from time to time.
Just as Allah Almighty has commanded women to stay in their homes, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon Him) has given them the privilege of praying in their homes under their dignity.
“Hazrat Ibn Umar (R.A) reported the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) as saying; Do not prevent your women from visiting the mosque, but their houses are better for them (for praying)”. (Sunan Abi Dawud: 567)
This means that the virtue that a man gets from praying in a mosque is the same virtue a woman is getting from praying in her homes. A woman doesn’t need to go to the mosque or pray with the congregation. Yes, this is true that a woman can pray five times a day and Friday prayers with men in the mosque, just as women used to pray in the Prophet (peace be upon him). And it is proved in the following Hadith.
Hazrat Umm Hasham Bint Haritha b. Nu’man (R.A) said:
“Our oven and that of the Messenger of Allah (SAW) was one for two years, or one year or for a part of a year; and I learned” Qaf. By the Glorious Qur’an” from no other source than the tongue of Allah’s Messenger (SAW) who used to recite it every Friday on the pulpit when he delivered the sermon to the people”. (Sahih Muslim: 873a)
Hence It is proved that women companions of the Holy Prophet (SAW) were used to pray with the congregation in the masjid during the time of the Holy Prophet (SAW).
A woman should perform the five prayers at her house in the very first time, follow the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon Him) with sincerity, pray with the humble and submissive heartbeat and maintain moderate content in prayer. She should choose the more inner part of the house to pray because it leads to greater rewards as stated in the following Hadith.
“Hazrat Abd Allah (b. Mas’ud) (R.A) reported the prophet (peace be upon Him) as saying; it is more excellent for a woman to pray in her house than in her courtyard, and more excellent for her to pray in her private chamber than in her house.”
(Sunan Abi Dawud: 570)
The summary of the above is that a woman should pray in her own home and in this way, she has more goodness, protection from chastity and temptation.
Acts nullifying the Salah
- Speaking during the prayer
- Cough without any reason
- Crying or groaning with sound due to pain
- Praying in Salah that is similar to the way people interact and speak
- Greeting or answering to any greetings during prayer
- Turning salam during the prayer
- Answering to sneeze during the prayer
- To recite any dua as a reply to any other person during the salah.
- 9. To reply anyone except your own Imam
- Eating or drinking during the prayer
- Chew something during the prayer
- To start any other prayer during the prayer
- To recite the Holy Quran during the prayer by seeing it
- To do any action for a long time during the prayer
- Uncovering any body parts that must be covered during the prayer
- If a woman comes equal to man during the prayer
- Turning away from the Qibla
- Laughing out loud during the Salah
- Recalling a missed prayer during prayer
- To miss any one of the conditions that make the Salah obligatory
- Invalidating any of the conditions that make the salah correct
- To skip any part of the salah
- To miss any Wajib of the salah
- Performing any part of the salah before Imam
- To stretch the hamza when saying the Takbeer
- Reciting the Quran incorrectly during the salah
How to pray salah correctly?
According to Fiqh Maliki:
This is an obligatory act for performing any kind of salah. After performing Wudu, face towards the Qibla and stand straight so that there is a gap of at least four fingers between your feet. Keep your eyes at the place of prostration. Make your intention that I am offering prayer, it is not necessary to say the words of intention with the tongue. But you should know the type and number of rakaats of the prayer you are going to offer.
TAKBEERAT EL IHRAM
After making the intention raise your both hands’ palms up to shoulder and say, “ALLAH U AKBAR”. Make sure that other fingers should remain straight. Hands should be left hanging at the sides after Takbeer. This is called SADAL. You also have the option of folding your arms which is referred to as QABD. This is also applied in Maliki school. Eyes should be focused on the place of prostration.
Then start to recite SURAH AL-FATIHA right after the Takbeer E Tehreema.
Note: according to Maliki school, there is no Dua OR Isti’aazah OR even Basmalah before Surah AL-Fatiha.
After reciting AL-Fatiha, say AMEEN. It is generally said silently. Then, recite the short surah or few verses from the Holy Quran.
Note: Again, there is no need to say Basmalah for reciting any surah.
Then go into RUKU by saying ALLAH U AKBAR. This is the position of saying the Tasbih which is:
DUA FOR RUKN سُبۡحَانَ رَبِّيَ الۡعِظِيۡمِ My Lord ,the Greatest is free from imperfection
There is no set number for this tasbih, you can recite this as much you can.
Note: Generally, Ruku is done without Raf al-Yadain but there is also an option of Raf al-Yadain within the school of Maliki.
Now stand up after Ruku by saying saying:
سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ, رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ,
Allah hear those who sent praises to him our Lord ,and All the praises are for you
Then go to sajdah by saying:
DUA FOR SAJDAH سُبۡحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعۡلَى
My Lord the Loftiest is free from imperfection
This is the place of tasbih and dua. Recite the above dua, again there is no set number for this dua, when this is done you can make any dua whatever you want.
When a person is in sujood, he is closest to Allah Almighty.
Then rise from sajdah by saying Allah U Akbar and go back to second Sajdah and do the same as you have done for first Sajdah. First Rakah of the prayer is completed. Now stand up by saying Allah u Akbar for the second Rakah.
Note: This point should be kept in mind that when you are going to sajdah, place your hands first on the ground, then knees and then nose and forehead. And when you are standing up for the second Rakah follow the above process reversely.
The second Rakah will be completed in the same manner as done in the first Rakah. When the second Rakah is completed now you are in the position of Tashahhud.
Here sitting position is important. Follow the following sitting position:
One should sit in the tawarruk position (i.e. when a person sits with his left posterior on the ground; his right foot placed vertically with toes pointing towards the qibla; and the left foot on its side emerging from under the right foot).
Once you sat in this position then recite the following dua:
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ، الزَّاكِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلىٰ عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ
After Tashahhud recite Durood e Ibrahim which is as
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ , وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ,
O Allah, bestow Your favor on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad
كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَي آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ , إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
As You have bestowed your favor on Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim , You are praiseworthy,most Glorious.
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ , وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ,
O Allah, bless Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad
كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَي آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ , إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
As You have blessed Ibrahim and on the family of Ibrahim , You are praiseworthy,Most Glorious.
After Durood e Ibrahim recite any dua. There is no specified dua in Maliki school.
Most of the people read the following Dua:
رَبِّ اجۡعَلۡنِىۡ مُقِيۡمَ الصَّلٰوةِ وَمِنۡ ذُرِّيَّتِىۡ ۖ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلۡ دُعَآءِ ۞ رَبَّنَا اغۡفِرۡ لِىۡ وَلـِوَالِدَىَّ وَلِلۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ يَوۡمَ يَقُوۡمُ الۡحِسَابُ
Or you can recite any Quranic Dua
Now you are ready to finish the Salah. According to Imam Malik, only single salam is necessary to finish the prayer and this done by saying ASSALAM O ALAIKUM while turning your head slightly to the right side.
According to Fiqh shafi:
After facing the Qiblah the person should make Niyah (intention). The intention is made within his mind, so the person should think about the obligatory, optional or Nafil prayer he intends to perform.
Takbir Tahrimah – Takbirat al-Ihram
After making Niyyah the person should start his prayer saying “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the greatest) raising both of his hands to the shoulders, with fingers stretching to the ear lobes.
He should then fold his hands in between his chest and navel (Shafi`i) with his right hand over the left hand. This time “Allahu Akbar” is called Takbir Tahrimah because after saying Takbir Tahrimah every common and worldly action, talk or movement is forbidden. Throughout the prayer the eyes of the worshiper should point to the spot where the forehead rests in sajda.
Recitation Before Surat al-Fatiha
There are several du`as (invocations) the Prophet (s) recited before surah Fatiha:
اللَّهُمَّ باعِدْ بَيْني وَ بَيْنَ خَطايايَ كَما باعَدْتَ بَيْنَ المَشْرِقِ وَ المَغْرَبِ، اللَّهُمَّ نَقِّني مِن خَطايايَ كَما يُنَقّى الثَّوْبُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَسِ، اللَّهُمَّ اغْسِلْني مِن خَطايايَ بِالماءِ وَ الثَّلْجِ وَ البَرَدِ.
“O Allah set me apart from my sins as East and West are apart from each other. O Allah cleanse me from my sins as a white garment is deansed from dirt after thorough washing. O Allah wash me off from my sins with water, snow and hail.
If a person does not know the above du`a then he should recite the following one:
سُبْحانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَ بِحَمْدِكَ وَ تَبارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَ تَعالى جَدُّكَ وَ لا إِلهَ غَيْرُك
“Glory be to you, O Allah, and all praises are due unto you, and blessed is your name and high is your majesty and none is worthy of worship but you”.
Ta`awwudh & Tasmiyya (Basmalah)
Then the person who is praying should recite the following silently:
أَعوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطانِ الرَّجيمِ. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم
“I seek Allah’s protection from Satan the accursed. In the name of Allah, The Beneficent and The Merciful” (The Basmalah should be said in every rakaat before reciting Surah Al-Fatiha.)
Then the person should recite Surat al-Fatiha:
الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمينَ۞ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيمِ۞ مالِكِ يَوْمَ الدّينِ۞ إِيّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ إِيّاكَ نَسْتَعينَ۞ اِهْدِنا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقيمَ۞ صِراطَ الَّذيْنَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لا الضَّآلِّينَ۞ آمين.
“Praise is only for Allah, Lord of the Universe. The most kind, the most merciful. The master of the Day of Judgment. You alone we worship and to you alone we pray for help. Show us the straight way, the way of those whom you have blessed. Who have not deserved your anger, Nor gone astray”.
Reciting al-Fatiha is so important that Prophet Muhammad (s) said that no prayer was acceptable without the recitation of al-Fatiha.
It is sunnah to say Ameen when a person finishes recitation of Surah Al-Fatiha. If he is praying alone he should say “Ameen” in silence and if he is praying with congregation behind an Imam then he should say Ameen fairly loudly when the Imam finishes saying the last verse of Surah Al-Fatiha. When saying Ameen, the voice of the whole congregation should resound at the same time.
Recitation After Surat al-Fatiha
It is sunnah for a person who is praying that he should read a surah from Quran after al-Fatiha in the first two rakaats of the fardh prayer.
Ruku – Bowing:
Then the person praying should say “Allahu Akbar” raising both his hands to shoulder level with the palms facing outwards and fingers stretching to earlobes. He should then bend in Ruku so that his trunk (i.e. from head to hips) is perpendicular to the rest of the body.
His hands should rest on his knees with the fingers spread apart, taking care that his arms do not touch his body. The person should be calm and composed in the Ruku posture and not hurry it.
Then he should read:
سُبْحانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظيم
at least three times. This means: “Glory be to my Lord Who is the Greatest.”
Perfection of Ruku` and Sajdah:
Abi Masud al Badri (R.A) reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
“Allah does not consider the prayer of a man who does not straighten his back when bowing for ruku` and performing Sajdah.” (Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, Tabrani)
Abi Qatadah (R.A) reported that the Messenger of Allah (s) said: ”The worst thief is one who steals in his prayer.”
Then the companions asked, “How can someone steal from his prayer?” Prophet (PBUH) answered, “He does complete his Ruku and sajdah with perfection.” (Ahmad, Tabrani, Ibn Khuzaimah, Hakim).
These hadiths prove that Ruku` and sajdah should be done calmly, slowly and perfectly. Otherwise the salat of the person will be deficient.
Qawmah/I`tidal – Standing after Ruku:
After the perfect Ruku the person praying should raise his head from Ruku` saying:
سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَه
“Verily Allah listens to the one who praises Him.”
One should raise the hands up to the level of his shoulders with palms facing outwards and fingers stretched to the earlobes and then he should lower his hands to his sides. In the standing position he should be erect so that the joints of his body go back in place.
Duaas in Qawma:
رَبَّنا لَكَ الْحمْدُ حَمْداً كَثِيراً طَيِّبَاً مُبَارَكاً فِيهِ
“Oh, our Lord, all praises be to You, Very many, pure and blessed praises be to You.”
First Sajda – Prostration:
After the perfect qawmah the person praying should move to perform sajda saying: – “Allahu Akbar,” putting palms downwards on the ground below the ears. The knees should be brought downwards on the ground.
His fingers and toes should be pointing towards Qiblah without spreading the fingers of the hands.
In this position he should say:
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلى
– “Oh Allah, glory be to you, the highest.” Importantly, during prostration seven parts of the body should touch the ground:
- The forehead along with the tip of the nose
- Both hands
- Both knees
- The bottom surface of the toes of both feet
Jalsa – Sitting Between Two Sajdas:
After performing one sajda perfectly and calmly, the person praying should raise his head from sajda saying, “Allahu Akbar”, bending the left foot and sitting on it while ‘keeping the right foot propped up with its toes pointing towards the Qiblah, the palms of his hands should rest on his thighs and knees. the back should be straight so that the joints go back in place. It is Sunnah to say the following du`a while sitting in between the two sajdas:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْلي وَ ارْحَمْنِي وَ اهْدِنِي وَ عَافِنِي وَ ارْزُقْنِي وَ اجْبُرْنِي وَ ارْفَعْنِي
“Oh Allah, forgive me, and have mercy on me, and keep me on the right path, and keep me healthy, and provide me with halal sources of living, and complete my shortcomings, and make my rank high.”
Then the person should perform the second sajda saying, “Allahu Akbar” and repeat what he did in the first sajda.
Jalsa Istaraahat – Sitting for Rest:
Then he should raise his head up saying. “Allahu Akbar” and sit for a short while as he did in jalsa. He does this before standing up for the second rakaat.
After standing up for the second rakaat he should fold his hands over his chest as he did in the first rakaat and start his recitation by reading “Basmalah and Surah-Fatiha followed by any passage or a chapter of the Holy Quran.” Then he should complete his second rakaat in the manner of the first one.
While choosing a passage or a chapter for the recitation in the second or a subsequent rakaat the worshipper should observe the order in which they occur in the Holy Quran. Also, each Surah or verse should be shorter than the one recited before it. Hence, longer surahs are recited before shorter surahs.
After completing the last sajda of the second rakaat, the person should raise his head saying: “Allah Akbar”. He should sit as he sat between the two sajda, putting his left hand on his left knee and right hand on his right knee. The first of the right hand is closed except for the index finger which is protruded.
التَّحِيَّاتُ لله وَ الصَّلَوَاتُ وَ الطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبيُّ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إلهَ إلا اللهُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ ورَسُولُهُ.
“All the salutations, prayers and good things are for Allah. Peace be on you O Prophet, and the blessings of Allah, and His grace. Peace on us and on all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none but Allah is worthy of worship and bear witness that Muhammad is the Servant and Messenger of Allah”.
While reading “Ash hadu ……`abduhu wa rasuluh.” A person should raise the index finger of his right hand slightly and return it to its previous position after he has finished saying it. A person praying 2 raka`ats only should end with salat with Salawat Ibrahimiyyah.
Standing Up for the Third Rakaat:
If a person is praying three or four rakaats, then he should stand up after tashahhud saying “Allahu Akbar” and raising his hands as he did in Takbir Tahrimah start his recitation with of Basmalah, Surah Al-Fatiha and then a short surah.
After the mentioned recitation one should continue to complete his third rakaat (or fourth rakaat). In the last rakaat, after reciting the Tashahhud, the Salawat Ibrahimiyyah must be recited:
اللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِ مُحمَّدٍ كمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْراهيمَ وَ عَلَى آلِ إبْرَاهيمَ وَ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِ مُحمَّدٍ كمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إبْرَاهيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إبْرَاهيمَ إنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
“Oh Allah, send grace and honour on Muhammad and on the family and true followers of Muhammad, just as you sent Grace and Honour on Ibrahim and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim. Surely, you are praiseworthy, the Great.”
Duaas After Salawat Ibrahimiyyah:
There are several Duaas which Prophet (s) used to say after Salawat Ibrahimiyyah and He taught them to the companions. Some are as follows:
i) `Abdullah ibn `Amr (R.A) said that Abu Bakr (R.A) said to the Messenger of Allah, “Please teach me a dua so I can say it in my prayer.” So the Messenger of Allah said:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي ظُلْمًا كَثِيرًا وَ لا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلا أَنْتَ فَاغْفِرْ لِي مَغْفِرَةً مِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَ ارْحَمْنِي إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ
“Oh Allah, I have been very cruel to myself (by ignoring my duty to you) and there is no one who can forgive the sins except You. So forgive me because You are the only forgiver and have mercy on me. Verily You are The Forgiver and The Merciful.”
ii) Shaddad ibn `Aws (R.A) reported that the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) used to say in his prayer the following:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الثَّبَاتَ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَ الْعَزِيمَةَ عَلَى الرُّشْدِ وَ أَسْأَلُكَ شُكْرَ نِعْمَتِكَ وَ حُسْنَ عِبَادَتِكَ وَ أَسْأَلُكَ قَلْبًا سَلِيمًا وَ لِسَانًا صَادِقًا وَ أَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ خَيْرِ مَا تَعْلَمُ وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا تَعْلَمُ وَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا تَعْلَمُ
“Oh Allah, I ask You for strength in every matter of religion and a strong will power to be on the right path. And I ask You to make me thankful for Your bounties and give me the ability to worship You perfectly. And I ask You to make my heart sincere and my tongue truthful. I askYou for every goodness known to You and I seek refuge in you from everything bad that You know is bad. I ask Your forgiveness for all mistakes You know”.
iii) Sayyida A`ishah (r) reported that the Prophet (s) used to say this du`a in his prayer:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدَّجَّالِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَ الْمَمَاتِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ الْمَأْثَمِ وَ الْمَغْرَمِ
“Oh Allah I seek refuge in you from the punishment of the grave, and I seek refuge in you from the trial of the Dajjal, and I seek refuge in you from the trial of life and death. Oh Allah, I seek refuge in you from every kind of sin and unexpected troubles.”
Ending the Prayer:
After praying for himself as much as the person wishes he should end his prayer saying:
السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ
“Peace be on you and the mercy of Allah,” turning the face first to the right and then to the left, both times over the shoulder. This brings the two, three or four rakaats of the prayer to completion.
According to Fiqh Hanfi:
Before performing any prayer, no garment, jubba or trousers should be allowed to overlap the ankles. It is makrooh e tahreema to perform salah whilst any garment is overlapping the ankles.
This means that the fardh salah will be considered as performed but there is very little reward or benefit in such a prayer.
Note: the direction of toes of your feet is towards the Qiblah. In between both feet there should be a span of 4 fingers of the hands.
Make your intention.
Example of intention: I m performing two rakaats of fardh salah of Fajr (to please Allah) facing towards the Qiblah.
Takbeer e tahreema:
Raise your hands whilst saying Allahu Akbar. When you raise your hands, make sure that they are level with your earlobes. The palms should be facing the Qiblah. Then using the thumb and the little finger of your right hand, wrap around wrist of your left hand. You should then spread out the three remaining fingers of your right hand onto the left wrist. You should stand upright, and your eyes should be focused on the spot where you make your sajdah.
Now recite the thana (Subhaanak allaahumma wa bihamdika wa tabaarak asmuka wa ta’aala jadduka walaa ilaaha ghayruk)
Ta`awwudh & Tasmiyya (Basmalah):
Then recite the Ta’awwudh (A`ūdhu billāhi min ash-shaitāni r-rajīm) and Tasmiyya (Bism’Illaha’Rahmani ‘Raheem)
Now recite the first chapter of the noble Quran i.e. surah fatiha.
الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمينَ۞ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيمِ۞ مالِكِ يَوْمَ الدّينِ۞ إِيّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ إِيّاكَ نَسْتَعينَ۞ اِهْدِنا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقيمَ۞ صِراطَ الَّذيْنَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لا
Then recite any Surah or 3 verses from any Surah of the noble Quran.
Ruku (bowing position):
Now perform the Ruku whilst saying Allahu Akbar. In Ruku hold both knees with the fingers apart. Ensure that the arms do not touch the body. Keep the back straight, while the head should neither be lowered nor raised.
Then recite subhaana rabbi al-‘azim (at least 3 times).
Now rise from Ruku’ whilst saying samiallah huliman hamida, Rabbanaa Lakal Hamd. stand up straight with the hands placed by the side.
Say the takbir whilst proceeding towards sajdah (prostration). In sajdah the feet should be upright with the toes pointing towards the Qiblah. Rest hands on the ground. Place the face between the hands. The nose and the forehead should be placed on the ground. Arms should be widened that the armpits open up and both elbow and forearm must not touch the ground. Thighs should be separated from the stomach. Then recite subhanna rabbiyal-a’la (at least 3 times)
Now sit up whilst saying the takbir Allahu Akbar. Sit resting the back on the left leg and having the right leg raised. The toes facing the Qiblah. say the takbir and perform second sajdah (following the method mentioned above).
Then stand for the second rakaat. rise from sajdah until standing up straight (taking support from the ball of the feet, no support should be taken from the ground using the hands) whilst saying the takbir.
This completes the first Rakaat:
The second Rakaat will be carried out in the same manner as the first rakaat, except the Thana will not be recited.
Upon completing the second sajdah in the second rakaat, the left foot will be laid down flat and will be sat on whilst the right foot will be kept erect and the toes will be facing the Qiblah. The hands should be placed on the thighs. The eyes should be fixed on the lap.
Now recite the Tashahhud (At-Tahiy-yatu lil-lahi was-salawatu wat-tay yibatu, As-Salamy ‘alika ay-yuhan-nabiy-yu wa rahma tullahi wa barakatu, As salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadil-la his-saliheen , Ash hadu al la ilaha illal lahu, wa ash hadu an-na Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluh).
(Allahumma salli ala Muhammad, Wa ala ali Muhammad, Kama sallayta ala Ibrahim, Wa ala ali Ibrahim, Innaka hamidun majid Allahumma Barik ala Muhammad Wa ala ali Muhammad Kama, barakta ala Ibrahim, Wa ala ali Ibrahim Innaka hamidun majid)
To recite the dua Allahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman kathiran wala yaghfirudh-dhunuba illa anta, Faghfirli maghfiratan min indika war-hamni, innaka antal Ghafur-Rahim
To say salaam by turning the head to the right and then to the left saying assalamualaikum warahmatullah. This will conclude the salah. When making the salam the eyes should be fixed onto the respective shoulders.
Note: If performing more than 2 rakaat, after the Tashahhud the person will stand back up to the standing position and perform the remainder of the rakaat like the first 2 rakaat. The salah will then be concluded as mentioned above.
The salah of a woman will be in the same manner as mentioned above with the following exception:
- When commencing the salah the hand will be raised up to the shoulders.
- The right palm will be placed on top of the back of the left hand beneath the chest.
- When going to ruku’ the back will not be completely straightened, rather the person will slightly lean forward so that the hands can reach the knee.
- The fingers will be closed (not left wide open) in ruku’.
- The limbs will be kept close to the body during the ruku’ and sajdah (whereas men will spread their limbs).
- In sajdah the forearms will be placed on the ground (whilst the men will keep them lifted).
- In the sitting position, the women will sit on their buttocks whilst both legs will be placed on the right side.
- The Muslim women will adopt the most concealing method in salah.
According to Fiqh Hanbli:
Stand for the prayer and make intention (uttering the intention lightly is recommended but not a condition as intention lies in the heart)
It should be specific, for example, “I am praying Asr prayer as an individual/follower/imam”.
For the Fardh prayer, it is necessary to stand and not standing without an excuse invalidates the prayer. Say “Allahu Akbar” whilst raising your hands and levelling the tip of the fingers with the shoulders and then clasp the left hand with the right, over the wrist joint, and the place them just under the navel. Same for women.
Throughout the whole prayer one should look at the place of prostration except during Tashahhud when one should look at the index finger with which he/she is pointing.
Then one says, “Subhanaka-llahumma Wa Bihamdika Wa Tabarakasmuka Wa Ta’ala Jadduka Wa Laa Ilaaha Ghairuk”, silently.
Ta`awwudh & Tasmiyya (Basmalah):
Then say “A’uthubillah Min-ash Shaitani-r Rajim” and “Bismillahi-r Rahmani-r Rahim”; silently. The latter is not considered part of al-Fatiha, thus, both statements are recommended and not obligatory.
Then one recites al-Fatiha which is mandatory. It has 11 Tashdeed in it, therefore, not reciting the Tashdeed means you are skipping letters and not fulfilling the obligation of reciting al-Fatiha. Reciting this is a pillar and skipping it invalidates the prayer.
After completing al-Fatiha one pauses slightly and then says “Amin”. The pause is there to assure that it is not considered part of al-Fatiha. In a loud prayer, the Imam and those who are praying behind him say it loudly, together. If one says it whilst emphasizing the “Meem”, i.e – “Aammmin”, it is not valid. Women do not say anything unless there are no men around.
It is recommended that one recites aloud during Fajr, first two rakaats of Maghrib and ‘Isha, Friday prayer, the ‘Eid prayer, the Eclipse prayer, and during the prayer for seeking rain. It is disliked for the follower to recite behind the imam during these prayers because the follower is ordered to listen only during the loud prayers.
The one praying individually has a choice and can do the loud prayers either aloud or silently and the same applies to the one who joins a loud prayer late and is making up the rest of the prayer.
After al-Fatiha, it is recommended that for Fajr one chooses any starting from Surah Qaf to al-Mursalat; for Maghrib any Surah starting from al-Duha to al-Nas; for the rest, any Surah starting from al-Naba to al-Layl.
Ruku (Bowing Down):
After that one says the Takbir and raises their hands (up to their shoulders) and goes to Ruku’, all at the same time. Takbir to transfer to the next position in Hanbali Fiqh are said during the movement and not before or after. Whilst in Ruku’ one should fix their hands on the knees whist keeping the fingers apart.
One should also try and keep their back straight.
In Ruku’ it is a Wajib (obligatory) to say “Subhana Rabbiya-l ‘Adhim” at least once. It is recommended that one says it three times. The Imam may go up to ten times.it is also preferred that one does not say anything more than “Subhana Rabbiya-l ‘Adhim”. However, if they do add on something from that which has been reported then no problem.
After that one says “Sami’a-llahu Liman Hamidah”, rises from Ruku’, and raises their hands (up to shoulders), all at the same time. The one praying behind an imam does not say “Sami’a-llahu Liman Hamidah”. If you are praying behind the Imam, then you say “Rabbana Walaka-l Hamd” whilst rising from Ruku’ and not after you’ve already stood up.
This means that when you’ve fully stood up from Ruku’ behind an Imam you do not say anything after “Rabbana Walaka-l Hamd”. One who is praying individually or leading as an imam is recommended to say “Rabbana Laka-l Hamd Mil’a-s Sama’i Wa Mil’a-l Ardhi Wa Mil’a Ma Shi’ta Min Shay’in Ba’d” after “Rabbana Walaka-l Hamd”.
One who has stood up from Ruku’ they have the choice to either place their hands back to where they were (below the navel) or to hang the hands by their sides.
Then he says “Allahu Akbar” as soon as he begins to go down for prostration. One should not say “Allahu Akbar” and then begin to prostrate nor should they say it after they’ve already gone down rather, they should say it as soon as they begin the movement. The knee should touch the ground first, then the hands, then the forehead, and then the nose.
Seven parts are required to touch the ground while in this position: forehead, two hands, two knees, two feet. The nose is considered part of the forehead but is only recommended and not required to touch the ground.
The arms should be away from the flanks. the abdomen should be away from the thighs. The knees should not be touching. The feet should be also separate and not touching and should be rested on the toes whilst the toes are bent towards the Qiblah. It is Wajib to say “Subhana Rabbiya-l A’la” at least once and but is preferred that one says it three times. It is disliked to cover the forehead or hands while in this position unless one has an excuse.
Sitting Between the Two Prostrations:
After that one says “Allahu Akbar” as soon as they begin to move their head up from prostration. They sit in the position and say “Rabbhigh-fir Li” three times; to say it once is a must. One should put his hands on one’s thighs and not the knees. One should keep one’s fingers together and not separate them.
Then one says “Allahu Akbar” again as they begin to move down for the second prostration. Do the same as discussed under the first prostration.
Then they say “Allahu Akbar” again as they begin to stand up from the prostration. Whilst getting up from the second prostration one should use the hands to rest their weight on the knees and not the ground. If resting the weight on the knees is difficult for them for some reason, then they should use the ground.
Now repeat the second rakaat exactly as the first with the exception of the following:
a) They do not repeat the Niyyah
b) They do not repeat the Takbiratu-l Ihram (the “Allahu Akbar” whilst initiating the prayer)
c) They do not repeat the “Istiftaah” (Subhanaka-llauhmma…)
d) They do not repeat the “Ta’awwudh” (A’udhubillahi….).
After completing the second rakaat, One sits for al-Tashahhud in the Ifitrash position. One should place the right hand on the right thigh and the left hand on the left thigh and not the knees.
With regards to the right hand, one should fold the little finger and the ring finder and make a circle with the middle finger and the thumb. He should raise his index finger every time he says “Allah” or “Allahumma”
This is the Tashahhud one recites according to the Madhab and it is the Tashahhud of Ibn Mas’ud (there are five different wordings for al-Tashahhud and they are all valid):
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ
After this one gets up whilst saying “Allahu Akbar” if it is Maghrib or if prayer made up of four Rakaats and prays the rest in the same manner but restricting the recitation to al-Fatiha only. Also, one does not raise his hands after the first Tashahhud in the third rakaat.
After completing the maghrib prayer or four rakaats in the same manner as discussed above Then one sits down for the second Tashahhud in the Tawarruk position and recites “al-Tahiyyatu…” again.
Then he recites:
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
[Note: There are other wordings, but this is the one that is agreed upon]
Then it is recommended that he makes this dua seeking refuge from four things:
أعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ عَذَاْبِ جَهَنَّم وَمِنْ عَذَاْبِ الْقَبَر وَمِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاْت وَمِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَسِيْحِ الدَّجَّاْل
After this one he is allowed to make dua’a in Arabic that are found in the Qur’an, in the Sunnah, or any dua in Arabic related to the afterlife even if the wordings don’t match with the ones from the Qur’an, Sunnah.
However, one cannot make dua seeking the pleasures of this world, e.g. – asking for a beautiful wife or for a new job or such and such car etc; doing so will nullify the whole prayer; this is regardless if you do it here (before the Taslim) or in prostration. This is because it is considered unnecessary speech which is prohibited during prayer.
Finally, he says “Assalamu ‘Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah” and turns to the right and then says the same whilst turning to the left. Saying it twice is required. It does not suffice if one says “Salamun ‘Alaykum Warahmatullah (سلام عليكم و رحمة الله)” without the alif and laam in the beginning. It must be said in the form “As-Salamun ‘Alaykum Warahmatullah (السلام عليكم و رحمة الله)”. And It does not suffice if one says, “Assalamu ‘Alaykum” only.
It is preferred that one does not make the “Assalamu ‘Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah” too long by stretching it out.
If praying behind an imam, then the follower must wait until the imam finishes booths salaams before giving one’s own salaams to end the prayer or getting up to make up missed portion of the prayer. Moving the head to the right and left are recommended and not required.
The prayer of the man is like that of the woman except in two cases:
- She should try and gather herself together by keeping her arms by her sides during prostration etc.
- During al-Tashahhud she may sit cross-legged or in the Tawarruk position but in her case she spreads legs to the right instead of one (and the latter is better).